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When asking a question, people will be better able to provide help if you provide code that they can easily understand and use to reproduce the problem. This is referred to by community members as creating a minimal, reproducible example (reprex), a minimal, complete and verifiable example (mcve), or a minimal, workable example (mwe). Regardless of how it's communicated to you, it boils down to ensuring your code that reproduces the problem follows the following guidelines:


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Minimal techno is a subgenre of techno music.[1] It is characterized by a stripped-down[2] aesthetic that exploits the use of repetition and understated development. Minimal techno is thought to have been originally developed in the early 1990s by Detroit-based producers Robert Hood and Daniel Bell.[3][4] By the early 2000s the term 'minimal' generally described a style of techno that was popularized in Germany by labels such as Kompakt, Perlon, and Richie Hawtin's M-nus, among others.

Minimal techno first emerged in the early 1990s. The development of the style is often attributed to a so-called "second wave" of American producers associated with Detroit techno. According to Derrick May, "while the first-wave artists were enjoying their early global success, techno also inspired many up-and-coming DJs and bedroom producers in Detroit".[5] This younger generation included producers such as Richie Hawtin, Daniel Bell, Robert Hood, Jeff Mills, Carl Craig, Kenny Larkin, and Mike Banks. The work of several of these artists evolved to become focused on minimalism.

The minimal techno sound that emerged at this time has been defined by Robert Hood as "a basic stripped down, raw sound. Just drums, basslines and funky grooves and only what's essential. Only what is essential to make people move. I started to look at it as a science, the art of making people move their butts, speaking to their heart, mind and soul. It's a heart-felt rhythmic techno sound."[6] Daniel Bell has commented that he had a dislike for minimalism in the artistic sense of the word, finding it too "arty".[4]

In Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music (2004), music journalist Philip Sherburne states that, like most contemporary electronic dance music, minimal techno has its roots in the landmark works of pioneers such as Kraftwerk and Detroit Techno's Derrick May and Juan Atkins. Minimal techno focuses on "rhythm and repetition instead of melody and linear progression", much like classical minimalist music and the polyrhythmic African musical tradition that helped to inspire it.[7] By 1994, according to Sherburne, the term "minimal" was in use to describe "any stripped-down, Acidic derivative of classic Detroit style".[8]

Los Angeles-based writer Daniel Chamberlin attributes the origin of minimal techno to the German producers Basic Channel.[9] Chamberlin draws parallels between the productions by Richie Hawtin, Wolfgang Voigt, and Surgeon with phase music techniques used by American minimalist composer Steve Reich. Chamberlin also sees the use of sine tone drones by minimalist composer La Monte Young and the repetitive patterns of "In C" by minimalist composer Terry Riley as other influences.[10] Sherburne has suggested that the noted similarities between minimal forms of dance music and American minimalism could easily be accidental. He also notes that much of the music technology used in electronic dance music was traditionally designed to suit loop-based compositional methods, which may explain why certain stylistic features of minimal techno sound similar to those in works by Reich that employ loops and pattern-phasing techniques.[11]

Philip Sherburne proposes that minimal techno uses two specific stylistic approaches: skeletalism and massification.[12] According to Sherburne, in skeletal minimal techno, only the core elements are included with embellishments used only for the sake of variation within the song. In contrast, massification is a style of minimalism in which many sounds are layered over time, but with little variation in sonic elements. Today the influence of minimal styles of house music and techno is not only to be found in club music, but is becoming increasingly heard in popular music.[13] Regardless of the style, he writes, "minimal Techno corkscrews into the very heart of repetition so cerebrally as to often inspire descriptions like 'spartan', 'clinical', 'mathematical', and 'scientific'".[11]

The average tempo of a minimal techno track is between 125 and 130 beats per minute. Richie Hawtin suggests 128 bpm as the perfect tempo.[citation needed] In the early minimal techno scene, most tracks were constructed around a Roland TR-808 or Roland TR-909 drum machine. Both are still often used on today's minimal techno tracks. In contrast to minimal house, minimal techno is less afrocentric and focuses more on middle frequencies rather than deep basses.

In recent years, the genre has been heavily influenced by the microhouse genre, to the point of merging with it. It has also fragmented into a great number of difficult to categorize subgenres, equally claimed by the minimal techno and microhouse tags.

Minimal techno has found mainstream club popularity since 2004 in such places as Romania,[14] Germany,[15] Portugal, Japan, France, Belgium, South Africa, The Netherlands, Spain, Sri Lanka, Italy, Ireland and the UK, with DJs from a wide variety of genres incorporating differing elements of its tones. In 2003, minimal techno received widespread commercial attention when Kylie Minogue employed the sound on her number-one hit "Slow", while in years to come the work of M.A.N.D.Y. and Booka Shade would be sampled by[16]

Izzedine et al found a lack of glomerular dysferlin expression associated with minimal-change nephropathy in a patient with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B. [10] In the same study, 2 of 3 other patients with dysferlinopathy had microalbuminuria.

In preadolescents, minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) makes up 85-95% of all cases of nephrotic syndrome. In adolescents and young adults, the prevalence is 50%, while in adults, MCNS accounts for 10-15% of primary nephrotic syndrome cases. The incidence of nephrotic syndrome is 2-7 new cases annually per 100,000 children, and the prevalence is 15 cases per 100,000 children.

Parameter binding for minimal APIs binds parameters through dependency injection when the type is configured as a service. It's not necessary to explicitly apply the [FromServices] attribute to a parameter. In the following code, both actions return the time:

The IResult interface can represent values returned from minimal APIs that don't utilize the implicit support for JSON serializing the returned object to the HTTP response. The static Results class is used to create varying IResult objects that represent different types of responses. For example, setting the response status code or redirecting to another URL.

Travis CI supports many popular programming languages, but can never hope to support them all. language: minimal and language: generic are images available in Ubuntu Focal dist: focal, Ubuntu Bionic dist: bionic, Ubuntu Xenial dist: xenialand Ubuntu Trusty dist:trusty, that are not tailored to any particular programming language. As their names suggest, language: minimal is optimized be faster and use less disk space, and language: generic to have more languages and services available.

Minimal aortic injuries are on the low end of the spectrum of blunt traumatic aortic injury. Various definitions of minimal aortic injury have been used in literature. They were originally defined as small (

Most minimal aortic injuries occur in the upper descending thoracic aorta at the aortic isthmus. Other sites affected are located where vessel branches arise or non vascular structures are tethered, including:

Since intimal injuries may resolve spontaneously, minimal aortic injuries are amenable to non-operative or medical management and can be treated conservatively with anti-hypertensives, anticoagulants or both depending on the coexisting injuries. Limited data on the natural history of this type of aortic injury necessitates close imaging surveillance for detection of any potential complication or adverse evolution of the minimal aortic injury. There is currently (late 2020) no establish follow up guidelines. Suggested follow up is for CTA at 48-72 hours then repeat CTA at one month 8.

The minimal templates are lightweight versions of theirstandard template counterparts. They have only the most vital packagesinstalled, including a minimal X and xterm installation. When properlyconfigured and used, minimal templates can be less resource-intensive, reduceattack surface, and support more fine-grained compartmentalization. Thesections below contain instructions for installing and configuring minimaltemplates, along with some examples of common use cases.

If something works with a standard template but not the minimal version,this is most likely due to user error (e.g., a missing package ormisconfiguration) rather than a bug. In such cases, please do not file abug report. Instead, please see Help, Support, Mailing Lists, andForum for the appropriate place to ask for help. Once you havelearned how to solve your problem, please contribute what you learned tothe documentation.

It is an intentional design choice for Passwordless Root Access inVMs to be optional in minimal templates. Since the minimaltemplates are minimal, they are not configured for passwordless root bydefault. To update or install packages, execute the following command in dom0:

If you want to be able to use sudo inside a minimal template (or app qubesbased on a minimal template), open a root terminal as just instructed, theninstall the qubes-core-agent-passwordless-root package.


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