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Rodion Horns
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Blood Fluke



Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Estimates show that at least 251.4 million people required preventive treatment in 2021. Preventive treatment, which\r\n should be repeated over a number of years, will reduce and prevent morbidity. Schistosomiasis transmission has been reported from 78 countries. However, preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis, where people and communities are targeted for large-scale\r\n treatment, is only required in 51 endemic countries with moderate-to-high transmission.




blood fluke



Intestinal schistosomiasis can result in abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and blood in the stool. Liver enlargement is common in advanced cases and is frequently associated with an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity and hypertension of the abdominal\r\n blood vessels. In such cases there may also be enlargement of the spleen.


The classic sign of urogenital schistosomiasis is haematuria (blood in urine). Kidney damage and fibrosis of the bladder and ureter are sometimes diagnosed in advanced cases. Bladder cancer is another possible complication in the later stages. In women,\r\n urogenital schistosomiasis may present with genital lesions, vaginal bleeding, pain during sexual intercourse and nodules in the vulva. In men, urogenital schistosomiasis can induce pathology of the seminal vesicles, prostate and other organs. This\r\n disease may also have other long-term irreversible consequences, including infertility.


For urogenital schistosomiasis, a filtration technique using nylon, paper or polycarbonate filters is the standard diagnostic technique. Children with S. haematobium almost always have microscopic blood in their urine which can be detected\r\n by chemical reagent strips.


Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Estimates show that at least 251.4 million people required preventive treatment in 2021. Preventive treatment, whichshould be repeated over a number of years, will reduce and prevent morbidity. Schistosomiasis transmission has been reported from 78 countries. However, preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis, where people and communities are targeted for large-scaletreatment, is only required in 51 endemic countries with moderate-to-high transmission.


Intestinal schistosomiasis can result in abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and blood in the stool. Liver enlargement is common in advanced cases and is frequently associated with an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity and hypertension of the abdominalblood vessels. In such cases there may also be enlargement of the spleen.


The classic sign of urogenital schistosomiasis is haematuria (blood in urine). Kidney damage and fibrosis of the bladder and ureter are sometimes diagnosed in advanced cases. Bladder cancer is another possible complication in the later stages. In women,urogenital schistosomiasis may present with genital lesions, vaginal bleeding, pain during sexual intercourse and nodules in the vulva. In men, urogenital schistosomiasis can induce pathology of the seminal vesicles, prostate and other organs. Thisdisease may also have other long-term irreversible consequences, including infertility.


For urogenital schistosomiasis, a filtration technique using nylon, paper or polycarbonate filters is the standard diagnostic technique. Children with S. haematobium almost always have microscopic blood in their urine which can be detectedby chemical reagent strips.


Schistosoma is a genus of trematodes, commonly known as blood flukes. They are parasitic flatworms responsible for a highly significant group of infections in humans termed schistosomiasis, which is considered by the World Health Organization as the second-most socioeconomically devastating parasitic disease (after malaria), with hundreds of millions infected worldwide.[1][2]


Adult flatworms parasitize blood capillaries of either the mesenteries or plexus of the bladder, depending on the infecting species. They are unique among trematodes and any other flatworms in that they are dioecious with distinct sexual dimorphism between male and female. Thousands of eggs are released and reach either the bladder or the intestine (according to the infecting species), and these are then excreted in urine or feces to fresh water. Larvae must then pass through an intermediate snail host, before the next larval stage of the parasite emerges that can infect a new mammalian host by directly penetrating the skin.


Unlike other trematodes and basically all other flatworms, the schistosomes are dioecious, i.e., the sexes are separate. The two sexes display a strong degree of sexual dimorphism, and the male is considerably larger than the female. The male surrounds the female and encloses her within his gynacophoric canal for the entire adult lives of the worms. As the male feeds on the host's blood, he passes some of it to the female. The male also passes on chemicals which complete the female's development, whereupon they will reproduce sexually. Although rare, sometimes mated schistosomes will "divorce", wherein the female will leave the male for another male. The exact reason is not understood, although it is thought that females will leave their partners to mate with more genetically distant males. Such a biological mechanism would serve to decrease inbreeding, and may be a factor behind the unusually high genetic diversity of schistosomes.[31]


Schistosomiasis (Bilharziasis) is caused by some species of blood trematodes (flukes) in the genus Schistosoma. The three main species infecting humans are Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni. Three other species, more localized geographically, are S. mekongi, S. intercalatum, and S. guineensis (previously considered synonymous with S. intercalatum). There have also been a few reports of hybrid schistosomes of cattle origin (S. haematobium, x S. bovis, x S. curassoni, x S. mattheei) infecting humans. Unlike other trematodes, which are hermaphroditic, Schistosoma spp. are dioecous (individuals of separate sexes).


In the chronic stage, symptoms can present months or years later. They vary depending on the species that has infected the host. In general, the eggs induce a significant immune response and form granulomas. S mansoni and S japonicum cause abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and colonic polyposis. Eggs that remain in the portal system develop periportal fibrosis. Symptoms include portal hypertension, hematemesis, ascites, splenomegaly, and esophageal variceal bleeding. Granulomatosis in the pulmonary system leads to chronic coughs, palpitations, atypical chest pain, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale, and ultimately death.5


Schistosoma mansoni is responsible for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis that affects 210 million people in 76 countries. Here we present analysis of the 363 megabase nuclear genome of the blood fluke. It encodes at least 11,809 genes, with an unusual intron size distribution, and new families of micro-exon genes that undergo frequent alternative splicing. As the first sequenced flatworm, and a representative of the Lophotrochozoa, it offers insights into early events in the evolution of the animals, including the development of a body pattern with bilateral symmetry, and the development of tissues into organs. Our analysis has been informed by the need to find new drug targets. The deficits in lipid metabolism that make schistosomes dependent on the host are revealed, and the identification of membrane receptors, ion channels and more than 300 proteases provide new insights into the biology of the life cycle and new targets. Bioinformatics approaches have identified metabolic chokepoints, and a chemogenomic screen has pinpointed schistosome proteins for which existing drugs may be active. The information generated provides an invaluable resource for the research community to develop much needed new control tools for the treatment and eradication of this important and neglected disease.


Liver flukes (Fasciola spp., Opisthorchis spp., Clonorchis sinensis) and blood flukes (Schistosoma spp.) are parasitic helminths causing neglected tropical diseases that result in substantial morbidity afflicting millions globally. Affecting the world's poorest people, fasciolosis, opisthorchiasis, clonorchiasis and schistosomiasis cause severe disability; hinder growth, productivity and cognitive development; and can end in death. Children are often disproportionately affected. F. hepatica and F. gigantica are also the most important trematode flukes parasitising ruminants and cause substantial economic losses annually. Mass drug administration (MDA) programs for the control of these liver and blood fluke infections are in place in a number of countries but treatment coverage is often low, re-infection rates are high and drug compliance and effectiveness can vary. Furthermore, the spectre of drug resistance is ever-present, so MDA is not effective or sustainable long term. Vaccination would provide an invaluable tool to achieve lasting control leading to elimination. This review summarises the status currently of vaccine development, identifies some of the major scientific targets for progression and briefly discusses future innovations that may provide effective protective immunity against these helminth parasites and the diseases they cause.


Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasitic blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Human-infective species are prevalent in developing countries, where they represent a major disease burden as well as an impediment to socioeconomic development. In addition to its clinical relevance, Schistosoma mansoni is the species most widely used for laboratory experimentation. In 2009, the first draft of the S. mansoni and S. japonicum genomes were published. Both genome sequences represented a great step forward for schistosome research, but their highly fragmented nature compromised the quality of potential downstream analyses. In this study, we have substantially improved both the genome and the transcriptome resources for S. mansoni. We collated existing data and added deep DNA sequence data from clonal worms and RNA sequence data from four key time points in the life cycle of the parasite. We were able to identify transcribed regions to single-base resolution and have profiled gene expression from the free-living larvae to the early human parasitic stage. We uncovered extensive use of single transcripts from multiple genes, which the organism subsequently resolves by trans-splicing. All data from this study comprise a major new release of the genome, which is publicly and easily accessible. 041b061a72


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